CRICKET:St John’s, Antigua (WICB):West Indies Cricket Board (WICB) President, Dave Cameron, is expressing heartiest congratulations on behalf of the board and management to the players and management of the under 19 team which won the ICC World Cup for the first time.Cameron credited the over 15 months of preparation the team underwent, which he thinks “gave them the tools necessary to win the title”.The five-wicket win, Cameron said yesterday, “was intense, but the players showed (the) resilience and patience required to take them through to the very end. “The region is proud this morning of the achievements of this team and we see a clear path to the development of our future stars.”He added: “This was a comprehensive team effort and this is indicative of how we would like to move forward with all categories of our game.”It was a wonderful Valentine’s Day gift to all the people in the Caribbean,” Cameron said, noting that he also wanted to highlight the contribution of the families of the young men.He said the team will be appropriately recognised once they return home.WIPA congratulates teamKINGSTON:The West Indies Players’ Association (WIPA) would like to extend heartfelt congratulations to the members of the West Indies Under-19 team, on their success at the ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup 2016 in Bangladesh.The present West Indies Under-19 Cricketer of the Year award winner, Shimron Hetmyer, led the team admirably with tactical and strategic execution. Hetmyer, his teammates and the support staff are the first West Indian team to lift the Under-19 World Cup trophy.WIPA President and CEO, Wavell Hinds, said: “These young men played with passion and heart and deserved to be the world champions. They carried the hopes of all West Indians from the first preparation game against Bangladesh right through to the final of the World Cup and did everyone proud.”Hinds continued: “This success augurs well for the future of West Indies cricket and the strong belief many West Indians have that one day West Indies cricket will again rise to the top of world cricket. Congratulations again to all members of the team, including the management and support staff.”
He was the sole occupant of the van when it was hit. He was rushed to Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center in Burbank, where he died. Monday marked Gama’s 20th year on the job. The Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office is reviewing the case and is expected to make a decision today on whether to file charges against Yanez or ask LAPD detectives to gather more evidence. If convicted on a felony manslaughter/DUI charge, Yanez could face a maximum of four years in state prison. Yanez’ friends could only shake their heads when they thought about Monday’s misfortune for all involved. “I just think it was the wrong place at the wrong time,” said McPhie. “Usually, nobody’s in a car just (parked near) a sidewalk. “It’s like the worst-case scenario.” firstname.lastname@example.org (818) 713-3329160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! Friends say that Yanez is an eclectic sort who carries a stereo in his backpack and enjoys listening to rap music. “He’s pretty unique, in a way,” said Ranier Nadres, a 17-year-old Grant High School senior, who along with McPhie, has known Yanez since their days at Millikan Middle School in Sherman Oaks. “He dresses out of the ordinary … He’s not into gangs. He’s a good kid,” Nadres said. At a news conference Monday, an emotional Sheriff Lee Baca said Deputy Gama was a dedicated law officer and family man. A Medal of Valor recipient and married father of four from Chino, Gama, 43, was conducting surveillance with a team of deputies working on a major-crimes case involving stolen cellular phones. NORTH HOLLYWOOD – Friends of Luis Yanez, the 18-year-old Grant High School student accused of killing sheriff’s Deputy Raul Gama when his SUV plowed into the lawman’s undercover van, said he would not have been drunk or on drugs when the early-morning crash occurred. Yanez, a San Fernando resident, was only a half-mile from campus Monday when police say his vehicle struck Gama’s van in the 14200 block of Oxnard Street, east of Whitsett Avenue. Yanez, who was not seriously injured, was arrested on suspicion of felony manslaughter while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. “He wasn’t driving under the influence,” said fellow Grant High School student Rusty McPhie. “I hang out with him and, first of all, he’d never drink that early. Eight-forty-five in the morning – that’s pretty early to be drinking,” said the 18-year-old senior. “They say he fell asleep at the wheel … I saw it on the news, and I was seriously about to cry. “He’s a cool guy to hang out with.”
Perimeter game: Hart senior guard Taylor Lilley hit five 3-pointers against Canyon, including a back-breaking shot from at least five feet beyond the arc with a little less than two minutes remaining to break open a 34-29 game. On Jan. 17, Lilley set a school record with nine 3-pointers in a 60-18 rout of Saugus. She has hit 19 3-pointers in her past three games and made 10 of 12 from beyond the arc during one stretch. Lilley has 73 3-pointers, breaking her personal single-season record of 70 set two years ago. “We hung in there, but when you have a player like (Lilley) who can score at will, it’s tough,” Canyon coach Stan Delus said. Freakout: After the Hart game, Delus made a point of telling his players that there were several positives they took out of the tough setback. Canyon played with the perennial powerhouse for most of three quarters and led 26-22 late in the third quarter before coming unraveled amid Hart’s relentless full-court pressure. “I thought we played really well most of the game, but the last four minutes we just kind of lost our composure – we freaked out,” Delus said. “The point spread didn’t (reflect) the game. I’m proud of my girls because they battled, but we just couldn’t finish off the ballgame.” Ford back: Hart’s Megan Ford, a 5-foot-11 forward, started but did not score against Canyon, her first game back since suffering a knee strain three weeks into the season. “She’s a very important part of our team,” Hart coach Dave Munroe said. “We need her for the rest of league and in the playoffs.” Upset: Although less publicized than the Hart/Burroughs and Burbank/Canyon shockers, another big Foothill League upset occurred Friday when unranked Saugus (15-6, 2-3) beat No. 10 Burbank (11-11, 2-3) 48-37. Gideon Rubin, (818)713-3607 email@example.com 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! CANYON COUNTRY – Many athletes have learned that dwelling on the past serves no useful purpose. Although the Hart High School girls’ basketball team no longer is stewing over its 54-53 Foothill League upset loss Jan. 10 to Burroughs of Burbank, the Indians have made a point of not completely forgetting it. “We’re trying to put it behind us, but not so far behind us to where we forget that every team is capable of beating us,” Hart junior forward Tatianna Thomas said. That approach apparently has served the Indians well. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORESanta Anita opens winter meet Saturday with loaded card Hart (16-4 overall, 4-1 Foothill) has won four consecutive games – by a combined 119 points – since the Burroughs debacle. The Indians, ranked No. 1 by the Daily News, on Friday staved off a big challenge from rival Canyon, outscoring the then-No. 2 Cowboys 21-3 down the stretch for a 43-29 victory. Hart’s defense held Canyon (17-4, 3-2) without a field goal in the fourth quarter. Hart has won four consecutive league titles and 13 titles in the past 16 years. Canyon is seeking its first title since 1973. “We’re upholding a tradition,” Thomas said.
Letterkenny CourtTwo women who were part of a crowd who allegedly made abusive remarks to members of the Orange Lodge at a local courthouse have appeared in court.The women, Louise Murray and Tracey Hume, are charged with engaging in threatening and abusive behaviour in the foyer of Letterkenny courthouse on October 8th, 2014. It followed an incident in which chants of ‘Let it Burn, Let it Burn, Let it Burn’ were heard by members of the public including members of the Orange Order.There were also claims that voices from the crowd said “your day is coming” and “we’re watching you.”The alleged threats coincided with an appearance by others in connection with an incident in which the local Orange Order Hall in Convoy was destroyed in an arson attack.Neither of the two accused were connected with that incident.However they were brought before the court arising out of the disturbance at Letterkenny Courthouse.An official complaint was made by Mr Robert McGonigle, a member of the Orange Lodge who said he felt intimidated for his property and his family.Inspector Goretti Sheridan said statements were taken from a number of witnesses including bystanders who said the crowd were chanting ‘Let it burn, let it burn’ and it was the women in the crowd who were doing the chanting.Ms Murray, 26, from Rooskey in Convoy, admitted the offence through her solicitor Kieran Dillon.Mr Dillon said Louise Murray was ashamed of what had happened and that she knows the people involved and that nothing has happened in the year and a half since the incident.Mr Dillon said his client suffered from depression. She had a lot on her mind at the time of the incident and had little memory of it because of the high emotions.However solicitor for Tracey Hume, 37, Mr Patsy Gallagher, said his client did not make any disparaging remarks whatsoever and denied being a part of the group chanting sectarian remarks.He said that someone merely identified Mr McGonigle in the crowd in the foyer of the courthouse and Ms Hume had simple replied ‘Aye’ and remarked that she had gone to school with him. The incident had caused her ‘untold heartache’, said Mr Gallagher.He said that Ms Hume came from the same religious background as Mr McGonigle.Judge Paul Kelly described the situation as “entirely intolerable” and “very sinister.”Having read a reference from a priest, the judge said of Louise Murray’s role that “it does not sound like a form of depression to me”.The judge said the matters before the court were serious and made more serious by their location at the court house where a group of people “obviously with a different set of beliefs were intimidated by another group of people”.He ordered probation reports into both women and adjourned their cases until April.WOMAN ADMITS SHOUTING ‘LET IT BURN’ AT ORANGE ORDER MEMBERS OUTSIDE COURT was last modified: February 23rd, 2016 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:convoydonegalLouise MurrayOrange OrderTracey Hume
COURTS: A man who went on a drunken rampage at Letterkenny University Hospital has had his case adjourned following a sitting of Letterkenny District Court this morning.John Ward, 34, with an address at 38 Oakland Park, Letterkenny appeared before the court on charges of criminal damage in relation to an incident that occurred on August 20th, 2015. Inspector Michael Harrison told the court, “Mr Ward was highly intoxicated and pulled a curtain rail from the cubicle he was receiving treatment in.“He then proceeded to pick up a computer and smashed it off the ground.“The estimated cost of damage to the computer was €1,000.”Solicitor for the defendant Gordon Curley told the court, “My client is deeply embarrassed by his actions, and he was extremely intoxicated on the night in question.“He’s 34, and is a married man with six kids, he is currently unemployed, but he wants to fully compensate the hospital for the damages he caused.“It was totally out of character for him and he was going through a very, very difficult period in his life at that time.“He is really, really embarrassed for what he has done, and as I said is keen to fully compensate the hospital and put the incident behind him.”Judge Paul Kelly ordered a probation report and decided to adjourn the case until June 20th.MAN DESTROYED COMPUTER DURING DRUNKEN RAMPAGE AT LETTERKENNY HOSPITAL was last modified: March 21st, 2016 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:computercourtscriminalCurtain RaildamagedrunkenLetterkenny University Hospitalmannewsrampage
LETTERMACAWARD NOTESSing out Adult Sing for fun course beginning this Thursday July 19th and will run for six weeks, Thursday nights at 8pm until 9.30 in St Brigid’s hall, Lettermacaward. The course is open to adults, men and women, of all abilities who enjoy music and singing and having a laugh. The course will cover basic vocal technique, breathing, sight singing and harmony. The course will end with a little informal performance where the group will perform arrangements of well known pieces. To enrol or for more information contact Sara on 0868868779.Doochary Festival This year at the Doochary festival there wil be knitting baking competitions aswell as a junior arts and crafts competition on Monday 13th August at 4.30pm. All entries will be independently judged. Cost adults €1 children 50c per item. Contact 0749546153 for entry forms Closing date for entries is 8th august Bingo in the Leitir hall every Monday night at 8.30pm. Jackpot €2275.00 on 45 numbers or less. Wednesday Unislim 11am -12pm & 7pm -8pmRosses Community Radio invites applications for a place on its new Training for Radio course ( Fetac Level 4 ) Dungloe September 2012. The course will run over 6 weeks on alternative Saturdays 9.30 – 4.30 each day. It will include the principals of community radio, hands on experience in recording, transmitting, production and presentation. Twelve places only are on offer so selection will take place. Please apply by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org or text 0871857992 before August 24th. LOCAL NEWS: LETTERMACAWARD COMMUNITY NOTES was last modified: July 18th, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:LOCAL NEWS: LETTERMACAWARD COMMUNITY NOTES
17 May 2010It won’t only be in the stadiums that South Africans will be showing their support for the World Cup and national team Bafana Bafana. With more and more cars flying the national flag on the country’s roads, and Bafana jerseys increasingly evident on Football Fridays, it’s clear that the locals are gearing up for the month-long mother of all football parties!Some fans have gone beyond the call of duty though, with just a jersey and a flag not offering enough of an outlet for their passion.Sports car, national flagRan Neu Ner, the CEO of the Creative Counsel group, has decided to brand his black Mercedes SLK 350 convertible sports car in the colours of the South African flag.“I’m a soccer fanatic and a South Africa fanatic,” says Ner. “I was just so excited by the idea of the World Cup coming here that I had to find a release, and do something radical. So I did this.”It took only a day for Ner to turn his car into a giant flag, and although the vinyl stickers are not permanent, this can be taken under consideration. “If Bafana Bafana win the World Cup this year, I’ll make it permanent.”Ner, who is attending as many matches as humanly possible, is daring other South Africans to follow his lead.“I challenge anyone to beat what I have done … I am excited about the support, but we can do more. I’ve been around the world watching football, and I can tell you that our supporters are some of the best; we are alive and have a great spirit in the stands. We must show this to the world.”For Ner, the 2010 Fifa World Cup is something unique and should be embraced as such. “All the marketing tells us ‘The World Cup in South Africa is a once in a lifetime experience’, but it really is, never again will it come back here while we are alive.“We need to get behind our people, our players and our country, to make this a World Cup to remember.”Building ‘South African-ness’The International Marketing Council (IMC), which is charged with promoting South Africa abroad, is pleased by the increase in national spirit.“We have been calling on all South Africans to actively participate in campaigns like the Fly the Flag and Football Fridays,” says Miller Matola, CEO of the IMC. “We are thrilled with the response so far. South Africans are passionate about football, and we anticipate support is likely to further increase the closer we get to kickoff.”Matola sees the tournament as an opportunity to build a greater sense of “South African-ness”, one that will last long after the final whistle has been blown.“With more and more South Africans flying the flag, wearing their football jerseys and proudly singing the national anthem, I have no doubt that the beautiful game will further build national pride and unity.”‘On the spur of the moment’Tumelo Mbalati of Johannesburg has recently invested in a South African car flag and wears his yellow Bafana Bafana jersey religiously. He feels that flying his flag and wearing his national colours is the most effective manner of demonstrating his patriotism and his support, for both his team and the tournament.“I bought my South African car flag when my friends and I decided to attend Bafana Bafana’s friendly match against Namibia,” says Mbalati. “On the spur of the moment, overcome by the excitement at the rare opportunity to watch the national team in action, we all went and purchased the flags.“For me, flying my country’s flag everywhere I go and wearing the Bafana jersey is the least I can do to show that I’m backing my country, through the national team, to succeed at the World Cup.’Brian Pale, who places great importance in wearing his national colours, shares the same enthusiasm. “I feel a sense of pride when I wear my Bafana jersey,” says Pale. “I feel one with the team. I expect us to prove to all the sceptics that South Africa is more than capable of hosting an event as big as the World Cup.’With South African football fever growing by the day, some fans know how hard it can be to find a suitably sized Bafana Bafana jersey. “This is an indication of the eagerness shown by South Africans to own a piece of the World Cup and support Bafana Bafana,” says Pale.Zobuzwe Ngobese, PR Manager at Fifa partner adidas, confirms that there has been great demand for the Bafana jersey at consumer level.“The orders that we have received from retailers have almost exceeded our expectations,” says Ngobese. “But we had anticipated that with the launch of the Football Fridays and other campaigns, the demand for merchandise would increase remarkably.”Source: 2010 Fifa World Cup South Africa Organising Committee
9 September 2013 Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies arrived in Xiamen, China on Sunday accompanied by a delegation, representing 62 South African companies, that will be taking part in the 17th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT). South Africa has been granted the status of Country of Honour at this year’s event, as part of the celebrations of 15 years of China-South Africa diplomatic relations. The CIFIT, which opened in Xiamen on Sunday and ends on Wednesday, will be followed by the South African Expos in China, an annual showcase of the country’s top value-added products and investment projects. The South Africa-China Expos, taking place in Shanghai and Beijing from Wednesday to Friday, and will be led by Deputy Trade and Industry Minister Elizabeth Thabethe. CIFIT is the only international investment promotion event aimed at facilitating bilateral investment with China, showcasing Chinese investment environments, policies and projects while providing a platform for agencies from various countries to conduct investment briefings. Davies said on Sunday that 15 South African industry sectors would be taking part in this year’s South Africa-China Expos. “Participating companies are in the sectors of agro-processing, chemicals, plastics, steel, aluminium, automotive, capital equipment and allied services, electro-technical, mining and beneficiation, renewable energy, infrastructure, oil and gas,” he said. Information communication technology (ICT) and transport will also get an opportunity to showcase their products at the trade fair. “In addition, Chinese and South African companies will be encouraged to explore co-operation opportunities in infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, ports, power generation, airports and housing through a series of business-to-business meetings and investment seminars.” According to Davies, South Africa’s exports to China increased by 45% year-on-year to reach an all-time high of R85-billion in 2011. In 2012, this figure declined by 5%, due to global dampening of demand and a slowdown in China’s growth rate. Although China is South Africa’s major trading partner, the majority of trade still resides in the commodities sector, which does not reflect well on the manufacturing sector. In order to address this, Davies said South Africa had prioritised its top 10 value-added products for export to China. He added that as China moved from being a leading exporter to a consumer and investor focused country, South Africa was intensifying its economic engagements to position the country accordingly. Source: SAnews.gov.za
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Crop prospects are improving slightly for many since early June, while the amount of exports are not, as U.S. corn and soybean export projections continue to be under pressure. The U.S. is facing stiffer competition from other exporting countries, especially Brazil and Argentina. USDA is currently projecting new crop exports of corn at 1.875 billion bushels. That number could drop as much as 200 million bushels in coming months. USDA had estimated new crop soybean exports at 1.775 billion bushels. They could decline to just 1.6 billion bushels.China has been an active buyer of soybeans from South America in recent months. They have not been buying U.S. soybeans in great quantity this summer. U.S. soybean new crop export sales at the end of July were half of last year’s sales at this time. We should see China return to buying from the U.S., though as they do not have coverage yet in place for October, November, and December. Crush margins have improved in China and are once again in the black. The recent doubling of China’s hog prices has contributed greatly to improving crush margins.Earlier this summer corn, soybeans, and wheat moved higher in quick fashion due to weather concerns. However, it was not your typical weather rally. Normally hot, dry weather is the market mover. This summer’s rally was due to prolonged wet conditions and delayed planting. Those conditions lasted for weeks into May and early June soybean planting. At one point nearly eight million acres of soybeans had not yet been planted in timely fashion. Missouri was the largest of four states that lagged in planting soybeans. Late in June there were still five million acres of soybeans to be planted. With the June 30 acres and stocks report, corn and soybeans had double digit gains. It was the start of higher prices with December corn peaking at $3.54 and November soybeans at $10.45.The month of July ended as violently as it began. The late June and early July rally gave hope to the bulls. Their excitement quickly ended, though. July was the worst month for commodity prices in general since 2011. Grains unfortunately rode commodities’ coattails as December corn was down 50 cents for the month of July. November soybeans fared even worse as they fell 97 cents in July. The weather problems seen earlier in June were enough to provide yield uncertainty. With that uncertainty prices rose into early July. Prices peaked at the levels detailed above. Bottom line, there was not enough uncertainty to hold the rally. The price action seen in July reinforces the notion that wet weather rallies can be much shorter in duration compared to hot and dry weather rallies.The August 12 USDA supply and demand report will be the first actual survey of crop conditions for corn and soybeans. This survey will determine yields. In addition, USDA will again survey soybean acres in Missouri. They will not include Illinois and Indiana in another soybean survey as once thought weeks ago. With the August report, traders are looking for soybean acres to drop one million acres from the previous June 30 report of 85.1 million acres.Producers need to remember they still are required to signup for program payments for 2014 and 2015. They spent lots of time pushing the pencil to see which of the three programs, ARC-county, ARC-individual, and PLC were most advantageous for their operations. However, producers must remember that their work during the winter needs this last step taken in order to actually receive program payments. September 30 will be the signup deadline.Unless we see some kind of unforeseen weather become reality in the next 30 days, the summer highs already seen in July will be extremely difficult to eclipse. The market appears to be factoring in a corn yield near 164 bushels. With the great weather seen in the western midwest, Iowa should see a new state corn yield record. In fact a small minority actually expected USDA to raise the corn yield from its July yield at 166.8 bushels.
This Q&A Spotlight begins with a confession of sorts from Ryan Lewis, who thinks he may have botched an insulation job. “Let’s suppose you screw up insulating a flat roof from the exterior in Climate Zone 4A,” he begins in a post at the Q&A forum. The code minimum for attic insulation in this climate zone is R-49. Lewis’ roofing contractor has added 1 1/2 inches of polyisocyanurate foam insulation on top of the roof deck, which Lewis assumes will perform at its nominal R-value of 9.75.RELATED ARTICLESCut-and-Cobble InsulationAir Sealing an AtticForget Vapor Diffusion — Stop the Air Leaks!How to Install Rigid Foam On Top of Roof Sheathing If he adds enough fluffy insulation between the rafters to get the total roof R-value to 49, Lewis runs the risk of creating moisture problems on the underside of the roof deck. Why? The roof sheathing will be cold, cold enough to become a condensing surface for moisture working its way through the cavity insulation. (For more information on this issue, see “How to Install Rigid Foam On Top of Roof Sheathing” and “Combining Exterior Rigid Foam With Fluffy Insulation.”) If the layer of foam is too thin, can’t he simply add more to keep the roof sheathing above the dew point? Not now. The roof is loaded with solar panels. In order to add more foam, Lewis would have to remove the panels and the racks as well as the roofing. What Lewis wants to know now is the maximum amount of fluffy insulation he can install between the rafters below the roof deck without incurring moisture related problems. Balancing interior and exterior insulation levels The issue is the proportion of interior to exterior insulation. In Climate Zone 4A, the International Residential Code prescribes R-15 to the exterior, and a total R-value of 49, writes Dana Dorsett. About 30% of the total R-value should be to the exterior of the fluffy insulation on the interior. With R-9.75 on the exterior, he continues, the most cavity insulation he can add is R-23, for a total center-of-cavity R-value of 33. With a low-slope roof, something less than 2:12, there will be less convection cooling in the roof and the roof deck would remain somewhat warmer, Dorsett adds. “I’d be comfortable painting the underside of the roof deck with half-perm latex paint and installing R-23 rock wool or 1.8 lb. [per cubic foot] blown fiberglass under that,” Dorsett says. Computer modeling of the assembly with a program called WUFI could help allay concerns Lewis might still have. “If there isn’t going to be any ceiling gypsum, stapling ~5-perm perforated aluminized fabric type radiant barrier would hold the batts in place and slow the rate of moisture accumulation at the paint/fiber boundary,” Dorsett says. “If there is going to be gypsum board on the underside, put the half perm paint on the gypsum, not the roof deck.” The risk of overstating polyiso’s performance Referring Lewis to the applicable sections of the IRC (here and here), Michael Maines mostly agrees with Dorsett’s assessment. Lewis needs at least 31% of the total insulation value in the roof on the exterior side of the sheathing. If he uses the nominal R-value for polyiso (R-6.5 per inch), the maximum total insulation in the roof will be R-31.8, leaving about R-22 for the fluffy (air-permeable) insulation between rafters. “But,” he adds, “since we are talking about the serious issue of moisture accumulation (and resulting damage) if it’s not done correctly, I don’t know why you would use a false value for polyiso. R-5.0 to R-5.5 per inch are more reasonable values for polyiso a few years old in cold weather. I’d use a value of R-8 or so for the polyiso, putting the total allowable fluffy stuff at R-18.” Consider adding an interior layer of spray foam These options leave the roof well below code-prescribed minimums. If Lewis wants to get closer to what it should be, Dorsett suggests a 2-inch layer of closed-cell polyurethane foam (with an HFO blowing agent) on the underside of the roof deck. The spray foam would add up to about R-14, and with R-15 rock wool batts on the inside, the roof would approach R-39 at the center of the rafter bay. Yes, adds GBA Editor Martin Holladay, this is one situation where Lewis might consider the “dreaded ‘foam sandwich.’ ” Dreaded because an assembly that traps a layer of wood sheathing between two impermeable layers of foam would seem to be begging for trouble. Should there be a leak, how can the roof dry? “If the roof sheathing is dry,” Holladay says, “you can safely install closed-cell foam on the interior — and in that way you could make the foam portion of your roof assembly thicker (by adding the R-value of the exterior rigid foam to the R-value of the interior closed-cell spray foam — and using that R-value to calculate your permissible fluffy layer).” Other risk factors for moisture damage Jon R writes that Lewis should consider a variety of factors in calculating the potential for moisture problems. His list includes: Air sealing the interior side. The use of a “smart” vapor retarder, such as Intello membrane. The choice of what type of fluffy insulation to use (cellulose is the better route). What indoor humidity levels are likely to be (the drier the better). The impact of the color of the roofing (darker colors absorb more heat from the sun). The vapor permeance of the exterior. What kind of roof sheathing Lewis uses (plywood is a better choice than OSB). Reservations about spray foam Lewis would rather avoid spray foam. “I’m generally pretty spooked about spraying foam,” he replies. “So living with below code R-values isn’t the end of the world.” With full-width 2×6 rafters (the house is 87 years old), and using non-foam insulation, the most Lewis thinks he should install below the roof deck is R-24. Choosing R-22 or R-23 rock wool gets him pretty close. If spray foam makes Lewis nervous, rigid foam does not. With that in mind, he wonders whether he could use 2 inches of polyiso below the roof deck (two 1-inch-thick boards with seams staggered). “If you take the rule bending to the limit,” he asks, “why not just fill all of the cavities with rigid foam? Then the ratio constraint essentially doesn’t apply?” What Lewis is suggesting, Holladay replies, is called the “cut-and-cobble approach.” “When that approach is used in unvented roof assemblies, it’s associated with moisture accumulation and rot,” he says, “because it’s hard to keep all the seams airtight with changes in humidity and temperature and with changes in snow loads on the roof.” Of course, should Lewis get beyond his reluctance to use spray foam, filling the entire rafter bay would solve a host of performance issues. Six inches of foam would get the roof to roughly R-50, Dorsett says, although it would prevent any drying toward the interior — and the cost could be in the $8-a-square-foot ballpark. “For the money,” Dorsett writes, “it’s hard to make a financial case for anything more than what’s needed for dew point control. At 2 inches, all closed-cell HFO blown foam is under 1 perm, a class II vapor retarder, but at the vapor-open end of class II, which is exactly where you want it to be for protecting the roof deck from winter accumulation without blocking drying too much.” And, adding a 2-inch layer of foam should cost less than $3 per square foot. Our expert’s opinion Peter Yost, GBA’s technical director, adds this: Once again, I am truly impressed with the level of the GBA exchange on this Q&A. I particularly like the list of factors by Jon R. Here are some additional thoughts: Air sealing rules: vapor flow considerations are just not as important as achieving a sustained air seal. Use of Intello Plus: After looking at technical documents from 475 High Performance Building Supply, I think that using a smart vapor retarder in a “middle” climate with significant heating and cooling needs would require checking in with 475 tech support. You can see those documents here and here. Cellulose as the preferred roof cavity insulation: This is an air-permeable insulation that Building Science Corp. chose for its vapor diffusion port research (see JLC’s “Avoiding Wet Roofs – Part II). I want to see the final report on this for climate zones above 3 before giving cellulose the edge. Indoor humidity levels: This is often a forgotten determinant of the evaluation of moisture performance of assemblies — nice catch. Impact of roof “color:” Another good catch. But a better expression of this phenomenon might be highly reflective vs. heat-absorbing roof claddings. It’s not just about color but the idea is that “cool roof” claddings mean a big reduction in how much heat a roof assembly takes on, with heat being a powerful roof-drying mechanism. Vapor permeance of the exterior: It has always puzzled me that the building code ignores this part of roof assembly drying performance. Yes, most roof claddings are class I or II vapor retarders, but not all. Type of roof sheathing: Another good catch, and I would add roof sheathing boards. We have at least one local high-performance builder who uses roof and wall sheathing boards because of how much more forgiving they are in terms of moisture. One factor that I would add to Jon R’s list: roof complexity. How worried I am about designed moisture performance versus actual installed performance is really driven by how simple or complex the roof is. While the final total R-value of the roof assembly may be primarily driven by cost, the one element of the roof assembly that can’t be compromised or determined by trade-offs is the airtightness of the roof assembly.